Characteristics:

Acne is a chronic, many-factored and infectious disease of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The main factors for developing acne are:

  1.    Increase secretion of sebum and enlargement of the sebaceous glands
  2.    Appearance of ‘blackheads’ – disturbances in the flow of sebum causes the sebaceous glands to be stretched even more
  3.    Bacterial infection – increase in an anaerobic bacterium together with the addition of streptococci and staphylococci.

Types and concepts:

  • Papula – a section of skin up to the size of half a centimeter, in other words limited, raised above the surface of the skin – mainly in viral diseases
  • Plaque – the joining-up of several papula, or if the affliction is broader
  • Nodule – an affliction that penetrates into the skin – is created above the skin and then penetrates into it. In this case, palpitation is important for defining. For example, xanthomas in the case of hyperlipidemia.
  • Blister / Bubble – a blister is a papula that is full of liquid, up to one cm. in size. If it is larger than that, it is a bubble. The liquid in the blister / bubble is clear.
  • Pustula – If the liquid is not clear, then it is a pustula. If the pustula is large, it is called a pustular lake. (The illness is not necessarily infectious, even if there is pus. For example, Psoriasis has an pustular expression, even though there is no real infection. The most common case in this category is folliculitis.)
  • Cyst – a liquid space around the dermis
  • Urtica – pustula or plaque edema – a raised area, but with edema (can be identified by the shine), the skin seems brighter because it is swollen. Usually from an allergic illness
  • Crust – an accumulation of serum, infectious cells, and occasionally also epithelium or epidermis. Usually in an infectious process or other inflammation, and if it is infectious, the crust itself will contain products of the inflammation.
  • Ulcer – an injury in the intra-dermal direction – the deeper it is, the worse the scarring is.
  • Lichenification – rough and thickened skin, occasionally with fine scaling, which can be identified by an increase in skin lines. This characterizes case of chronic skin inflammation – the skin thickens, becomes rough and loses its flexibility.

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